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Private Limited Companies are those types of companies where minimum number of members is two and maximum number is two hundred. A private limited company has the limited liability of members but at the same time it has many characteristics as those of a partnership firm. A private limited company has all the advantages of partnership namely flexibility, greater capital combination of different and diversified abilities, etc., and at the same time it has advantages of limited liability, greater stability and legal entity. In this sense, a private limited company stands between partnership and widely owned public company. Identifying marks of a private limited company are name, number of members, shares, formation, management, directors and meetings, etc., The maximum number of directors shall have to be mentioned in the Articles of Association. In the grand of privileges and exemptions, the Companies Act has drawn a distinction between an independent private company and other private company which is a subsidiary to the other public company.
A company is a legal entity and a juristic person established under the Act. Therefore a company form of organization has wide legal capacity and can own property and also incur debts. The members (Shareholders/Directors) of a company have no liability to the creditors of a company for such debts.
A company has 'perpetual succession', that is continued or uninterrupted existence until it is legally dissolved. A company, being a separate legal person, is unaffected by the death or other departure of any member but continues to be in existence irrespective of the changes in membership.
A company enjoys better avenues for borrowing of funds. It can issue debentures, secured as well as unsecured and can also accept deposits from the public, etc. Even banking and financial institutions prefer to render large financial assistance to a company rather than partnership firms or proprietary concerns.
Shares of a company limited by shares are transferable by a shareholder to any other person. Filing and signing a share transfer form and handing over the buyer of the shares along with share certificate can easily transfer shares.
A company being a juristic person, can acquire, own, enjoy and alienate, property in its own name. No shareholder can make any claim upon the property of the company so long as the company is a going concern.
Limited Liability Partnership has been introduced in India by way of Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008. The basic premise behind the introduction of Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) is to provide a form of business organization that is simple to maintain while at the same time providing limited liability to the owners. A Limited Liability Partnership combines the advantage of both the Company and Partnership into a single form of organization and one partner is not responsible or liable for another partner's misconduct or negligence. Therefore, all partners have a form of limited liability for each individual's protection within the partnership, similar to that of the shareholders of a corporation. However, unlike corporate shareholders, the partners have the right to manage the business directly. An LLP also limits the personal liability of a partner for the errors, omissions, incompetence, or negligence of the LLP's employees or other agents. LLP is one of the easiest form of business to incorporate and manage.
A LLP is a legal entity and a juristic person established under the Act. Therefore a LLP form of organization has wide legal capacity and can own property and also incur debts. The Partners of a LLP have no liability to the creditors of a LLP for such debts.
A LLP has 'perpetual succession', that is continued or uninterrupted existence until it is legally dissolved. A LLP, being a separate legal person, is unaffected by the death or other departure of any Partner but continues to be in existence irrespective of the changes in Partnership.
A LLP does not require audit if it has less than Rs.2.00 Crores of turnover and less than Rs.25 lakhs of capital contribution. Therefore, LLPs are ideal for startups and small businesses that are just starting their operations and want to have minimal regulatory compliance related formalities.
The ownership of a LLP can be easily transferred to another person by inducting them as a Designated Partner of the LLP. LLP is a separate legal entity separate from its Managing Partners, so by changing the Managing Partners, the ownership of the LLP can be changed.
A LLP being a juristic person, can acquire, own, enjoy and alienate, property in its own name. No Partner can make any claim upon the property of the LLP so long as the LLP is a going concern.
Limited Liability means the status of being legally responsible only to a limited amount for debts of a LLP. Unlike proprietorships and partnerships, in a LLP the liability of the members in respect of the LLP's debts is limited.